about blood transfusion
The term blood transfusion relates to simply the process of moving one person’s blood to another. A blood transfusion needs occurs when a person is experiencing serve blood loss that is serve enough to affect the circulation and the blood volume. When blood volume is so low that it is unable to transport oxygen around the body efficiently and when there’s spontaneous bleeding caused by too few platelets. There’s 4 types of blood that people can have; A, B, AB and O all covered with different antigens as shown in table below.
hese types of blood covered in types of antigens gives an indication of what certain blood types can be effective to another. Ie type A blood cells that have A antigens on the cells can only receive blood from type A and type O blood. Same with B types blood cells can only receive from B and O type blood. To make it more complicated blood have RH markers that mean if you have the marker your blood type is positive and if you don’t it means it’s a negative blood type which changes how blood can be donated as shown in this diagram below
immune system involved with abnormal responses
the components are the A and B antigens that are on the external surface of the red blood cell that detect foreign blood cells that have different antigens on their surfaces, the body detects it as foreign and is attacked by the immune system which causes problems for person receiving the blood. Antibodies are present in the blood plasma and if blood antisera and the antigens are the same then the blood will bind together and cell will clump which is called agglutination which is dangerous as blood no longer can circulate around the body which could kill the recipient of the blood
Describe how the normal body functioning is affected and what treatments are available if any to modulate the immune system.
The body could possibly be affected by allergic reactions where antigens cross-link on mast cells which secret histamine, which causes swelling to occur, but can be treated by the use of antihistamines to control the swelling. A more rare reaction caused but still dangerous is when the wrong kind of blood is donated (such as type B- blood being donated to a person with type O+ blood) this causes a problem as the body will detect this new blood as foreign because of the RH markers and begin to attack them the only way to avoid this is not to give positive blood to people with negative blood type. Giving the wrong blood type to a person (type A donating to a person with type B) have different antibodies and when in contact will begin to clump together which could cause major problems and blood isn’t circulating through the body freely which could cause possible death.